Two of Illinois' biggest and most controversial laws passed in 2013 – concealed carry permits and medicinal marijuana – officially took effect Jan. 1.
However, their impact won't be seen for months, according to government agencies.
Illinois State Police will accept online applications to carry a concealed handgun starting Jan. 5 and recently announced the acceptance of paper applications beginning July 1.
More than 2,000 registered concealed carry instructors are already listed on the State Police website, said spokesperson Monique Bond, but the first permits won't be issued until early April.
"It could be sooner, but we are going to use the full 90 days to give us enough time to make sure we do it right," Bond said.
In order to obtain a standard five year concealed carry permit, Illinois residents must already have a Firearm Owner Identification (FOID) card, pay a $150 fee, submit to a background check and undergo 16 hours of firearm training with a certified instructor.
Applications will be processed by State Police, which will issue or deny the card within 90 days. Denied applications will be reviewed by the governor-appointed Concealed Carry Licensing Board.
For similar reasons, medicinal marijuana will not be accessible until well past Jan. 1. Not only will there be a time lapse to process applications for distribution and cultivation centers, said Illinois Department of Public Health spokesperson Melaney Arnold, but government agencies are still determining the specifics of the law's implementation.
"I would like to give a time frame, but there are so many moving pieces," Arnold said. "We're working as quickly as we can to get it out."
The Department of Public Health is in charge of the certification process for doctors and patients, but several other departments and agencies are overseeing different aspects of the law.
But progress is slow, Arnold said. Even key elements of the law, such as how to approve dispensaries and certification requirements, remain undecided.
"It's not going to happen overnight," she said. "[The delay] really is because of the enormity of it and making sure we are responsible and do it in a responsible way."
While still a long way off, the eventual effects of both concealed carry and medicinal marijuana will be significant, according to the laws' proponents and opponents.
Richard Pearson, executive director of the Illinois State Rifle Association, said he anticipated the state would see a decline in the crime rate as more gun owners are allowed to carry a weapon on their person. Those worried about an increase in guns on the street needn't be, he said.
"You're looking at people who have gone through extensive training and gone through the same background checks that a police officer gets," he said.
Colleen Daley, executive director for the Illinois Council Against Handgun Violence and an opponent of the bill, said while the law has some positives, such as increased background checks, extensive training requirements and prohibited locations, its effect is unclear. She expects to see lawsuits challenge the law, but said first, people need to be educated.
"People are going to be around others who are carrying legal, loaded guns," she said. "Some are deeply concerned, some aren't, but the average citizen should be aware that something like this is happening."
Dr. Eldon Trame, president of the Illinois State Medical Society, said many of the more than 12,000 current and retired doctors in his organization were taking a "wait and see" attitude toward medicinal marijuana and that members were neither encouraged nor discouraged from prescribing it.
"Some physicians are very much in favor of the law and some are very much not in favor of the law," he said. "But I, at least, will certainly have an open eye and open mind to this."
Qualifications for concealed carry permits
• Older than 21
• Valid Firearm Owners Identification (FOID) card
• No more than one conviction for driving under the influence in the last five years
• No misdemeanors involving the use or threat of physical force or violence to any person in last five years
• No arrest warrant
• No residential or court-ordered treatment for alcoholism, detoxification or drugs in last five years
• Completed 16 hours of firearms training
Concealed carry prohibited locations
• Schools and childcare facilities
• Government buildings
• Public parks
• Museums, stadiums and zoos
• Public transportation
• Any property or business that collects more than 50 percent of its profits from alcohol sales
Common medical conditions eligible for medicinal marijuana
Spinal cord disease
Brain or spinal chord injury
Other new laws that started Jan. 1
• A new $50 minimum fine for littering, including cigarette butts
• Interstate speed limits increased to 70 mph
• People younger than 18 cannot use tanning equipment
• Regarding child pornography possession, each individual item counts as a separate violation
• Public school sexual education classes for sixth through 12th graders must cover abstinence and contraception
• Drones can be used by law enforcement for a missing person search if it is not a criminal investigation, or if the agency is using the drone solely for crime scene photography
• 17-year-olds can vote in a primary election if they will be 18 by the upcoming general election
• School districts can install cameras on school buses to track drivers who pass stopped buses illegally
• Those who buy a pet with an undisclosed illness can receive a refund, replacement or reimbursement for reasonable veterinary costs from the seller
• Law enforcement outside their jurisdiction can conduct temporary questioning or make an arrest if they become aware of the immediate commitment of a criminal offense